Calculate ratios, such as "find a word D related to the word C in the same way as the word A is related to the word B". An example is given in the placeholder: which word is in the same relation to the word "daughter" as "father" is to "mother"? The answer is "son": these concepts are in identical binary gender oppositions.
You can also think of this operation as removing the "mother" component from the semantics of "father" and augmenting it with "daughter" component. The model inferences that it should change age from adult to young and change gender from female to male. Thus, it outputs "son" as an answer.